Department of cardiac muscle pathology and transplantation of organs and tissues

Malformations of the aortic valve

Aortic valve disease: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Aortic defects are an organic changes in the shape, structure of valve flaps and / or aortic ostium, which lead to the violation of its function, and in the following - to the development of cardiac muscle and circulatory insufficiency.

It is characterized by a deterioration of the blood flow into the aorta and / or reverse flow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.


Isolated aortic valve diseases are more rare in comparison with combined diseases.
There are congenital (irregular structure, position or number of valve flaps), and acquired aortic diseases.
The latter can develop as the result of infectious diseases (they are caused by pathogens that are delivered by bloodstream from the other centers of infection: staphylococcus aureus, pale treponema, hemolytic streptococcus), autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatism), somatic diseases (hypertension, atherosclerosis of the aortic orifice, calcification of the valves) and traumatic injuries.


Aortic valve disease with infection or trauma quickly leads to circulatory failure, and in the absence of complex treatment - to the death. In other cases, the clinical picture develops gradually, over the years. In the early stages blood circulation is completely compensated by remodeling of the left ventricle. Eventually, the compensation abilities of the heart are exhausted, and the disease begins to manifest itself clinically in the form of pale skin, shortness of breath, anginal pains in the heart due to the deterioration of the coronary vessels blood filling, dizziness, tinnitus, loss of consciousness, a feeling of palpitation and irregular heartbeat. The pulse pressure increases. The occurrence of the "pulsating person" syndrome is pathognomonic for this disease. Children have a " cardiac hump".
With time, apart from the left, the right sections of the heart are also involved in the process and severe heart failure develops.


  • Laboratory tests (general blood analysis, rheumatological tests, blood culture for sterility, serological diagnostics of syphilis, biochemical blood test);
  • Physical examination, incl. percussion, palpation, auscultation, blood pressure check;
  • X-ray study of the thoracic organs in several projections, ventriculography, coronary angiography;
  • ECG, echocardiography, dopplerography and phonocardiography;
  • Cardiac chambers catheterization.


Drug treatment, aimed at eliminating symptoms and improving cardiac activity, is carried out in case of both compensated and subcompensated conditions of the disease.
For this, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, nitrates, diuretics and vasodilators are used.
With the progression of the disease, surgical treatment in the form of balloon valvuloplasty (in early stages of the disease without gross organic changes) and the aortic valve replacement are performed.



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