Department of cardiac muscle pathology and transplantation of organs and tissues

Aortic stenosis

Aortic valve failure: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is a pathological condition whereby an obstruction to the blood outflow in the aorta by the left ventricle is formed.


Causes of development of AVS are rheumatological lesions, cicatrical changes in the valves due to inflammatory processes of the endocardium tissues, congenital heart disease, atherosclerotic lesion or calcification of the valvular apparatus, leading to a narrowing of the lumen of the exit from the right ventricle.


AVS is a consequence of chronic changes, except for the congenital pathology. Normally, the aortic orifice area is about 2.5 cm2. Clinical symptoms begin to appear with a decrease in lumen to 30-35% in relation to the norm, and indicate the exhaustion of the compensatory abilities of the heart.
The first signs are shortness of breath, associated with an increase in pressure in the capillaries of the lungs, an increase in resistance in the left ventricle, which leads to a deterioration in the perfusion of oxygen. First appearance may be from the attack of cardiac asthma. This same reason can cause anginal pain. Stenosis is also characterized by the occurrence of dizziness, fainting, tinnitus and visual disorders associated with poor blood flow to the brain, arrhythmias. The occurrences of heart failure increase.


  • Laboratory tests (rheumatological tests, serological diagnostics (RW), lipid profile);
  • Phonocardiography, ECG, echocardioscopy;
  • Ultrasound of abdomen, dopplerography of large vessels;
  • Physical examination, incl. percussion, palpation, auscultation, blood pressure check;
  • X-ray study of the thoracic organs in several projections, ventriculography, coronary angiography
  • Cardiac chambers catheterization.


With early detection of the pathology, treatment is conservative and is aimed at prevention of the progression of AVS and improvement of heart function.
If a clinically pronounced defect has already formed, then, in the absence of contraindications, aortic valve replacement is performed. For children, as well as in the case of blockage of valve flaps with connective tissue growths, the carrying out of balloon valvuloplasty and commissurotomy is possible.



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