Department of cardiac muscle pathology and transplantation of organs and tissues

Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta

Abdominal aortic aneurysm: Etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostics, and methods of treatment

Abdominal aortic aneurysm develops due to the weakness of the aortic walls, which further become thinned under the influence of blood pressure, resulting in the enlargement of a part of the aorta. Large aneurysms may disrupt that may be fatal.


The main cause is aortic atherosclerosis. Less frequently, the acquired abdominal aortic aneurysm develops due to inflammatory process: non-specific aortoarteritis or specific vascular lesions in syphilis, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, mycoplasmosis, or rheumatism. Among the inborn factors, there are systemic connective tissue diseases (Marphan’s syndrome). Predisposing causes are high blood pressure, smoking, and overweight.


Persistent or intermittent dull and gnawing pain in mesogastrium or the left part of stomach, sensation of heaviness and fullness in stomach and intensified pulse in the area of aneurysm. Due to the compression of intestines by the aneurysm, patients may experience dyspeptic symptoms (belching, nausea or vomiting). The pain may irradiate into the lumbar, sacral or inguinal area. Abdominal aneurysm rupture is accompanied by the symptoms of the acute abdomen (acute and intensive pain in the abdomen and the lower back) and collapse due to the internal hemorrhage that may be fatal if not managed urgently.


  • Abdominal ultrasound
  • Plain abdominal radiography
  • Doppler ultrasound
  • Aortography


The diagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysm with large dimensions requires surgical treatment. The radical surgery includes resection of aneurysm with the following replacement of the excised part of aorta with either homotransplant or synthetic vascular prosthesis.



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